Python Modules and Packages

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Python’s power lies in its extensive library of modules and packages, which provide pre-written code for various tasks. To tap into this vast resource, you need to understand importing modules. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore importing modules in Python, offering detailed explanations, real-world examples, and practical use cases, complete with code snippets and outputs. By the end, you’ll be equipped with the skills to effortlessly harness the capabilities of Python’s modules.

Introduction to Modules

A module is a file containing Python definitions and statements. These can include functions, classes, and variables. Modules help organize your code into reusable and manageable units.

Importing Modules

To access the functionality of a module, you need to import it. Python provides several ways to import modules:

Importing the Whole Module: You can import the entire module using the import statement.

import math
print(math.sqrt(25))  # Output: 5.0

Importing Specific Functions or Variables: You can import specific functions or variables from a module using the from keyword.

from math import sqrt
print(sqrt(25))  # Output: 5.0

Importing with an Alias: You can import a module with an alias to make it shorter and more convenient to use.

import math as m
print(m.sqrt(25))  # Output: 5.0

Organizing Code with Packages

In Python, packages are a way to organize related modules into a directory hierarchy. A package is a directory containing a special file called To import modules from a package, you can use dot notation.


Let’s say we have a package called shapes containing modules circle and rectangle. We can import these modules as follows:

from shapes import circle, rectangle
circle.calculate_area(5)        # Output: 78.54
rectangle.calculate_area(4, 6)  # Output: 24

Importing Standard Library Modules

Python comes with a vast standard library of modules. You can import these modules just like any other module.


import datetime
today =
print(today)  # Output: 2024-01-31

Handling Module Not Found Errors

Sometimes, you may encounter a “ModuleNotFoundError.” This occurs when Python can’t find the module you’re trying to import. To resolve this, ensure that the module is installed or check your project’s directory structure.

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