Sorting is a fundamental operation in computer science, and understanding sorting algorithms is crucial for every programmer. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore various sorting algorithms in the C programming language, providing detailed explanations, practical examples, and real data to help you master these essential techniques.

**Bubble Sort in C**

Bubble Sort is one of the simplest sorting algorithms. It repeatedly steps through the list, compares adjacent elements, and swaps them if they are in the wrong order.

**Example: Implementing Bubble Sort in C**

```
#include <stdio.h>
void bubbleSort(int arr[], int n) {
int temp;
for (int i = 0; i < n - 1; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < n - i - 1; j++) {
if (arr[j] > arr[j + 1]) {
temp = arr[j];
arr[j] = arr[j + 1];
arr[j + 1] = temp;
}
}
}
}
int main() {
int arr[] = {64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90};
int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
printf("Unsorted Array: ");
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
printf("%d ", arr[i]);
}
bubbleSort(arr, n);
printf("\nSorted Array: ");
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
printf("%d ", arr[i]);
}
return 0;
}
```

**Output:**

```
Unsorted Array: 64 34 25 12 22 11 90
Sorted Array: 11 12 22 25 34 64 90
```

In this example, we implement the Bubble Sort algorithm to sort an array of integers.

**Selection Sort in C**

Selection Sort is another simple sorting algorithm that sorts an array by repeatedly finding the minimum element from the unsorted part and putting it at the beginning.

**Example: Implementing Selection Sort in C**

```
#include <stdio.h>
void selectionSort(int arr[], int n) {
int minIdx, temp;
for (int i = 0; i < n - 1; i++) {
minIdx = i;
for (int j = i + 1; j < n; j++) {
if (arr[j] < arr[minIdx]) {
minIdx = j;
}
}
temp = arr[i];
arr[i] = arr[minIdx];
arr[minIdx] = temp;
}
}
int main() {
int arr[] = {64, 34, 25, 12, 22, 11, 90};
int n = sizeof(arr) / sizeof(arr[0]);
printf("Unsorted Array: ");
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
printf("%d ", arr[i]);
}
selectionSort(arr, n);
printf("\nSorted Array: ");
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
printf("%d ", arr[i]);
}
return 0;
}
```

**Output:**

```
Unsorted Array: 64 34 25 12 22 11 90
Sorted Array: 11 12 22 25 34 64 90
```

In this example, we implement the Selection Sort algorithm to sort an array of integers.