Computer Organization

    1. What is the purpose of computer organization?
      • Computer organization defines the operational units and their interconnections to realize architectural specifications.
    2. Differentiate between Von Neumann and Harvard architectures.
      • Von Neumann architecture uses a single bus for both data and instructions, while Harvard architecture employs separate buses for data and instructions.
    3. Explain the concept of pipelining in computer organization.
      • Pipelining is a technique where multiple instructions are overlapped in execution, allowing simultaneous execution stages for different instructions.
    4. What is the role of cache memory in computer organization?
      • Cache memory is used to store frequently accessed data and instructions, reducing the time needed to access them from the main memory.
    5. Define the term ‘endianess’ in computer architecture.
      • Endianess refers to the byte order used to store data in memory; it can be either big-endian or little-endian.
    6. How does virtual memory enhance the performance of a computer system?
      • Virtual memory allows for larger programs to be executed by using disk space as an extension of RAM, thereby reducing the need for physical memory.
    7. What are the key components of the memory hierarchy?
      • The memory hierarchy includes registers, cache memory, main memory (RAM), and secondary storage (disk drives)
    8. Explain the role of a memory controller in computer architecture.
      • A memory controller manages data flow between the CPU and memory modules, ensuring efficient access and retrieval of data.
    9. Differentiate between RISC and CISC architectures.
      • RISC architectures prioritize simpler instructions with fewer addressing modes, while CISC architectures support complex instructions with multiple addressing modes.
    10. What is the significance of the instruction set architecture (ISA)?
      • The ISA defines the instructions and their encoding formats understood by the processor, serving as a bridge between software and hardware.
    11. Discuss the importance of instruction pipelining in modern processors.
      • Instruction pipelining enables the simultaneous execution of multiple instructions, enhancing processor throughput and performance.
    12. Explain the concept of cache coherence in multiprocessor systems.
      • Cache coherence ensures that multiple caches containing copies of shared data maintain consistency, preventing inconsistencies in data access.
    13. What is the purpose of the control unit in a CPU?
      • The control unit manages the execution of instructions by decoding them and coordinating the operation of other CPU components.
    14. Discuss the role of the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) in computer organization.
      • The ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations on data fetched from memory or registers, facilitating computation within the CPU.
    15. How does the concept of pipelining affect the design of instruction sets?
      • Pipelining influences instruction set design by favoring simpler instructions that can be executed in parallel stages, improving processor efficiency.
    16. Explain the term ‘superscalar architecture’ in computer organization.
      • Superscalar architecture enables the simultaneous execution of multiple instructions within a single clock cycle, enhancing processor performance.
    17. What is the purpose of branch prediction in modern processors?
      • Branch prediction anticipates the outcome of conditional branch instructions, allowing the processor to fetch and execute subsequent instructions more efficiently.
    18. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using cache memory.
      • Cache memory improves CPU performance by reducing memory access latency but increases cost and complexity due to its management overhead.
    19. Explain the concept of instruction-level parallelism (ILP).
      • ILP refers to the simultaneous execution of multiple instructions within a single processor, exploiting instruction dependencies to enhance performance.
    20. What role does the memory management unit (MMU) play in computer architecture?
      • The MMU translates virtual addresses into physical addresses, enabling efficient memory allocation and protection in a virtual memory system.
  1. Discuss the impact of cache associativity on cache performance.
    • Cache associativity affects cache hit rate and access latency; higher associativity generally leads to better performance at the cost of increased complexity.
  2. Explain the difference between static and dynamic branch prediction.
    • Static branch prediction predicts branches based on historical behavior, while dynamic branch prediction uses runtime information to make predictions.
  3. What is the role of the system bus in computer organization?
    • The system bus facilitates communication between the CPU, memory, and peripheral devices, transferring data and control signals across the system.
  4. Discuss the concept of data hazards in pipelined processors.
    • Data hazards occur when pipeline stages depend on the results of previous instructions, potentially causing stalls or incorrect results if not handled properly.
  5. Explain the purpose of the memory hierarchy in computer systems.
    • The memory hierarchy organizes different levels of memory based on speed, cost, and size, aiming to provide a balance between performance and cost-effectiveness.
  6. is the role of the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) in computer organization?
    • The ALU is responsible for performing arithmetic and logical operations on data. It operates on binary numbers, executing tasks like addition, subtraction, AND, OR, and NOT operations, fundamental to computation in a CPU.
  7. Explain the difference between synchronous and asynchronous communication in computer systems.
    • In synchronous communication, data is transferred at regular intervals using a clock signal for synchronization, while asynchronous communication transfers data without a fixed timing mechanism, relying on start and stop bits for synchronization.
  8. Discuss the significance of Moore’s Law in computer organization.
    • Moore’s Law observes that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years, driving advancements in processing power, memory capacity, and overall performance in computer systems.
  9. What are the primary components of a CPU?
    • The CPU comprises the control unit, arithmetic logic unit (ALU), registers, and cache memory. The control unit manages the execution of instructions, while the ALU performs arithmetic and logic operations.
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