## pyspark.sql.functions.atan2

In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the world of PySpark’s atan2 function – a mathematical gem that has numerous applications in data analysis and processing. atan2, short for “arc tangent 2,” is a mathematical function used to calculate the angle θ between the positive x-axis and a point (x, y) in a Cartesian coordinate system. Unlike the standard atan function, atan2 takes two arguments, y and x, and returns the angle θ in radians. Mathematically, atan2(y, x) returns the angle θ such that:

```
θ = atan(y / x)
```

However, `atan2`

is especially useful because it can correctly determine the angle θ in all four quadrants of the Cartesian plane, avoiding division by zero errors and ensuring accurate results.

### Advantages of using PySpark atan2

### 1. Precision and robustness

One of the primary advantages of using `atan2`

in PySpark is its precision and robustness. It eliminates the risk of division by zero errors, which can be a common source of inaccuracies in mathematical calculations. This precision is crucial when working with large datasets where even a small error can have a significant impact on the results.

### 2. Suitable for distributed data processing

PySpark is designed for distributed data processing, making it an excellent choice for handling big data. The `atan2`

function can be applied to distributed datasets, allowing you to perform complex mathematical operations across multiple nodes in a cluster seamlessly.

### 3. Versatile applications

`atan2`

is not limited to calculating angles alone. It can be used in a wide range of applications, including robotics, computer graphics, geographic information systems (GIS), and more. In the context of PySpark, it can be particularly useful for data transformations and feature engineering.

Let’s explore some real-world examples to demonstrate the practical applications of PySpark’s `atan2`

function.

#### Example 1: Geographic data analysis

Suppose you have a dataset containing latitude and longitude coordinates of various locations. You can use `atan2`

to calculate the bearing angle between two points, which is crucial for navigation and routing algorithms in geographical applications.

```
from pyspark.sql import SparkSession
from pyspark.sql.functions import atan2
spark = SparkSession.builder.appName("atan2 example1 @ Freshers.in").getOrCreate()
# Sample DataFrame with latitude and longitude
data = [(34.0522, -118.2437), (40.7128, -74.0060)]
df = spark.createDataFrame(data, ["latitude", "longitude"])
# Calculate bearing angle
df = df.withColumn("bearing_angle", atan2(df.latitude, df.longitude))
df.show()
```

Output

```
+---+---+------------------+
| x| y|rotation_angle_deg|
+---+---+------------------+
| 3| 4| 53.13010235415598|
| -2| -2| -135.0|
+---+---+------------------+
```

#### Example 2: Image processing

In image processing, you may need to determine the orientation of objects within an image. You can use `atan2`

to calculate the angle of rotation of an object based on its coordinates.

```
from pyspark.sql import SparkSession
from pyspark.sql.functions import atan2, degrees
spark = SparkSession.builder.appName("atan2 example @ Freshers.in").getOrCreate()
# Sample DataFrame with object coordinates
data = [(3, 4), (-2, -2)]
df = spark.createDataFrame(data, ["x", "y"])
# Calculate rotation angle in degrees
df = df.withColumn("rotation_angle_deg", degrees(atan2(df.y, df.x)))
df.show()
```

Output

```
+---+---+------------------+
| x| y|rotation_angle_deg|
+---+---+------------------+
| 3| 4| 53.13010235415598|
| -2| -2| -135.0|
+---+---+------------------+
```

#### Scenarios/ Usecase

**Geospatial Data Analysis**: When working with geospatial data,`atan2`

is invaluable for calculating angles between geographic coordinates, determining the direction of movement, and developing location-based services.**Image Processing**: In computer vision and image processing,`atan2`

can help analyze object orientation, track motion, and correct image distortions.**Robotics and Autonomous Vehicles**: Robotics and autonomous vehicles rely on`atan2`

to navigate, avoid obstacles, and make precise movements based on sensor data.**Machine Learning Feature Engineering**: When creating features for machine learning models,`atan2`

can be used to extract meaningful information from raw data, such as angles, orientations, or directional features.**Physical Simulation**: In physics simulations,`atan2`

assists in modeling the behavior of objects in a 2D or 3D space, enabling accurate calculations of forces and trajectories.

**Spark important urls to refer**