Trino Galaxy: A Deep Dive into its Architecture and Components

This article unravels the intricate architecture of Trino, shedding light on its core components and their synergistic interplay. Through examples and outputs, readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of Trino’s inner workings.

Introduction: Trino, an open-source distributed SQL query engine, stands out for its exceptional performance and scalability. To comprehend its prowess, we must explore the architectural foundations and key components that empower Trino’s capabilities.

Trino Architecture Overview: Trino’s architecture is designed for distributed and parallel query processing. It comprises several essential components that collaborate seamlessly to execute SQL queries efficiently. Let’s delve into these components:

Coordinator Node:

  • The Coordinator is the brain of the Trino cluster, responsible for parsing queries, planning query execution, and coordinating communication among worker nodes.
  • Example query coordination:
-- Trino SQL
SELECT column1, column2
FROM table
WHERE condition;

Worker Nodes:

  • Worker nodes are responsible for executing tasks assigned by the Coordinator, parallelizing query execution for optimal performance.

Example task execution:

-- Trino SQL
SELECT AVG(column) AS average_value
FROM table;

Query Planner:

  • Trino’s Query Planner is a crucial component that transforms SQL queries into an efficient execution plan. It analyzes data distribution and optimizes query execution across worker nodes.
  • Example query planning:
-- Trino SQL
SELECT department, COUNT(employee_id) AS employee_count
FROM employees
GROUP BY department;

Connector Framework:

  • Trino’s Connector Framework facilitates integration with various data sources. Connectors enable Trino to interact with databases, file systems, and other data storage systems seamlessly.
  • Example connector usage:
-- Trino SQL with connector
FROM jdbc.mysql.example.database.table;

To illustrate Trino’s architecture in action, let’s consider real-world queries and observe how Trino’s components collaborate to execute them efficiently.

Example 1 – Join Operation:

-- Trino SQL
SELECT, departments.department_name
FROM employees
JOIN departments ON employees.department_id = departments.department_id;

Example 2 – Subquery Execution:

-- Trino SQL
SELECT department_name
FROM departments
WHERE department_id IN (SELECT department_id FROM employees WHERE salary > 50000);

Examining the execution plans and distribution of tasks during these examples provides insights into how Trino’s architecture optimally processes complex queries.

Read more on Trino here

Author: Freshers